Document dating in forensic science

There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc. Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file document. Comparison of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame — If other similar documents from the same source and pertinent time frame are available for comparison with the contested document, then:.

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In case we generate records only with an IT system is it mandatory to keep the raw data if we keep a scanned copy? Is there any GDP policy regarding the register, logbook etc. Spiral binding logbook is not a good option and auditor will not allow its pages can be changed easily.

This bottle dating “key” is a relatively simple “first cut” on the dating of a bottle. must be reviewed by a user to increase the probability of dating accuracy. Ink/​shoe polish bottles – Another common exception to this dating question deals with.

Programmed formats, automatic date forward functions, and custom date and time editors for a full range of date coding capabilities. Date coding is an essential part of most production processes. In food and beverage applications date codes are integral to consumer safety and meeting federal regulations. In industrial manufacturing, date marking helps provide full traceability and is crucial in the event of a recall or quality compliance issue.

With Linx date coders you can ensure consistently readable date codes. Linx industrial date coding printers have pre-programmed and customizable date and time formats to match every customer need. With real time clock functions our coders can automatically print manufacture dates and calculate a best before or expiry date; adding any number of seconds, hours, days, or months to the current date and time. Using simple on screen prompts most new formats can be easily created and stored using internal printer memory.

Once the desired format is chosen the printer can be set to variable intervals for forward or back sequential numbering, with some models even auto-adjusting for daylight savings time. Continuous Inkjet CIJ : The most customizable option with inks that can be applied to nearly any substrate; even food safe inks for prints that come in direct contact with ingestible products!

Linx CIJ coders are renowned for their flexibility, clean operation, and reliability to cope with long hours of operation. Large Character Ink Jet : Linx Large Character Printers provide high-resolution printing and are easy to set up and adjust, offering a cost-effective alternative to pre-printed boxes or labels.

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The application of radiocarbon dating to determine the geochronology of archaeological sites is ubiquitous across the African continent. However, the method is not without limitations and this review article provides Africanist archaeologists with cautionary insights as to when, where, and how to utilize radiocarbon dates. Specifically, the review will concentrate on the potential of carbon reservoirs and recycled organic remains to inflate apparent age estimates, diagenesis of carbon isotopes in variable pH ecologies, and hot-humid climates and non-climate-controlled archives that can compromise the efficacy of samples.

Legacy radiocarbon ages must be critically examined for what method was used to generate the age, and calibration radiocarbon ages from critical periods of African prehistory lack precision to resolve significant debates. A multipronged dating strategy and careful selection of radiocarbon sample materials are advocated from the earliest stages of research design.

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Ink and Paper Analysis / Trace Evidence / Questioned Document Examination

A ballpoint pen , also known as a biro [1] or ball pen , is a pen that dispenses ink usually in paste form over a metal ball at its point, i. The metal commonly used is steel , brass , or tungsten carbide. Some pen manufacturers produce designer ballpoint pens for the high-end and collectors’ markets. The concept of using a “ball point” within a writing instrument as a method of applying ink to paper has existed since the late 19th century.

The larger an ink collection is, the more reliable the match will be. 3. The date of first introduction of a given ink. If researchers have access to a.

Continue to access RSC content when you are not at your institution. Follow our step-by-step guide. Sauzier curtin. This paper presents a study into the potential of visible spectroscopy with chemometrics as an approach to dating blue ball tip inks on paper documents. Analysis of six inks left under various conditions found that the majority of those kept in the dark could still be matched to the source pen after 32 months of ageing.

Conversely, the majority of those exposed to light exhibited rapid spectral changes that continued throughout the 32 month period. Partial least squares regression PLSR was used to generate dating models for inks aged with exposure to light. Evaluation using an external test set found absolute dating to be challenging for these ink deposits within the first 2—6 months of ageing. However, predictive accuracy was found to improve for long-term ageing, with two-year old samples yielding age estimates with a maximum error of 6 months.

This rapid, non-destructive methodology could assist document examiners in the relative ageing or approximate age determination of questioned documents, as well as the identification of document alterations. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.

Handwriting Expert Witnesses: Their Role, Value, and Admissibility

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dating to be challenging for these ink deposits within the first 2–6 months of ageing. However, predictive accuracy was found to improve for long-term ageing,​.

There are typically two different forensic methods for ink dating. With this method the forensic analysis determines the components in the ink, compares them against a library of standards and then allows an opinion regarding the first date that particular ink was manufactured commercially available. The dynamic approach is very useful in determining if a pen ink was placed on a document on its purported date, i.

There are only a handful of forensic scientists capable of performing these tests and laboratories equipped with the proper tools. The proposed tests are minimally invasive, the latter two involving the placement of pinhole perforations in the text, paper and signatures on the Original Document. The pinholes themselves are not typically easily visible unless the document is held up to light, and the testing has no negative effect on handwriting analysis.

All of the proposed testing follows Court approved testing methods, e. Under appropriate circumstances, the Court may order destructive testing of all or some portion of the physical item in question. Douglas E. Barnhart, Inc. Inks appearing on questioned documents may be examined for the purpose of comparing with other inks on the same document, with ink on other documents or even with ink in seized pens.

Sequence of entry can sometimes be determined.

Potassium dating accuracy

But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one.

Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used. Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones.

Each document was produced at different moments using a different ink stroke pressure, factors that may alter the results and lead to dating errors. During the natural ageing process of each sample, which had a known age, the research team analysed the evolution in the various volatile components.

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Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper. The ink dating static approach is typically more useful as the difference between the date on the document and the present time increases.

Several different tests exist in this form of ink dating. These ink dating methods include the comparison of the examined ink to a known library of standards, commonly called the library approach, the detection of chemical date tags placed in the ink purposefully by the manufacturer, commonly called the date tag method, and also the determination of the type of ink writing instrument used.

The determination of the type of writing instrument is probably the oldest method of ink dating. This ink dating method primarily involves microscopic examinations and can also incorporate some basic chemical solubility testing. Some examinations can be performed on fountain pens to determine type of nib, type of ink and the first date of introduction of each of these.

However, since this is a very small portion of the actual type of cases seen, we will concentrate primarily on more recent developments.

Ballpoint pen

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ink or pencil. This is generally modelled in laboratory and based on the evidence you can trace the date fairly accurately as to when the document was written.

Yes, with certain limitations. We can determine the first date of commercial availability of the ink used to prepare any handwritten or handprinted material. The type of ink does not preclude this examination. If the initial date of commercial availability is more recent than the supposed date of the examined writing, then the document is not what it purports.

We cannot, however, through this technique, determine the specific or even approximate date of preparation. Other techniques can determine the approximate date of preparation of handwritten entries. Additionally, it is possible to measure the quantity of several semi- volatile components that are present in ink.

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